Solar panels, also known as photovoltaic systems, use semiconductor technology to convert the energy in sunlight into electrical energy to power your home for free. Solar cells absorb sunlight from semiconductors and convert it into electrical energy. Solar cells store electrical energy generated by solar energy and allow you to use it when you are not using solar panels to generate electricity at night. Regardless of whether it is connected to the grid, solar cells can be used.
The home solar panel is the core part of the solar power generation system. The role of the solar panel is to convert the sun's light energy into electrical energy and then output DC power to be stored in the storage battery. Solar panels are one of the most important components in household solar power generation, and their conversion rate and service life are important factors that determine whether solar cells have use-value.
The household power generation system is generally composed of a photovoltaic square array composed of solar cell components, a solar charge, and discharge controller, a battery pack, an off-grid inverter, a DC load, and an AC load. The photovoltaic square array converts solar energy into electrical energy when there is light, and supplies power to the load through the solar charge and discharge controller, and simultaneously charges the battery pack; when there is no light, the DC load is powered by the battery pack through the solar charge and discharge controller. At the same time, the storage battery also directly supplies power to the independent inverter, and the inverter is converted into alternating current through the independent inverter to supply power to the AC load.
Solar cells are electrically connected and packaged together, commonly referred to as solar panels(solar power panels: folding solar panels). When you connect multiple solar panels, they form a solar cell array. Finally, when you add cables, brackets, inverters, etc., the entire system constitutes a solar panel system.
Electrical conductors are attached to the positive and negative terminals, thereby forming a circuit. From there, electrons can be captured in the form of electric current (electricity). This current and the battery voltage (due to its built-in electric field or electric fields) together determine the power (or wattage) that the solar cell can produce.
(According to the different network connection, it can be divided into the on-grid solar system, hybrid solar system, and off-grid solar system)
The grid-connected solar system consists of a rooftop solar panel that generates direct current and an inverter that converts it into alternating current that can be used at home. The excess solar energy generated during the day flows back to the grid. At night or when solar production is low, your house will be powered by the grid. In the event of a power grid failure, these systems do not provide backup power. The grid-connected system is the most common home solar system.
The grid-connected system uses the local public power grid to ensure that you will never lose power. If your home solar panel system generates more electricity in a day than your home needs, then this excess energy can be exported back to the national grid. On the other hand, if you need more power than the solar panel generates, the grid can provide power.
Hybrid power system
The solar energy of the hybrid system has a battery for storing excess energy generated by the solar panels that your house does not use. When not producing solar panels, you can use the energy stored in the battery instead of drawing energy from the grid. Houses with hybrid solar systems will have backup power in the event of a grid interruption, which makes them popular in places with frequent power outages.
Off-grid solar system
Off-grid home solar systems are not connected to the public grid at all. The independent photovoltaic system is not connected to the grid but instead charges the solar cell system. These batteries store the electrical energy generated by the panel. To operate the device, the electricity stored in these batteries will be used.
In this case, you must use solar panels and batteries to meet all your power needs. These systems are usually more expensive because you need more solar panels and energy storage to meet all your usage needs(Lead Acid solar UPS battery). After all, the grid cannot be used when solar production is low. When designing off-grid solar systems, it is often necessary to strictly control and measure the load and be equipped with some kind of backup generator. A
(According to different materials, it is divided into monocrystalline solar panels, polycrystalline solar panels, and thin-film solar panels)
Monocrystalline silicon solar panel
The material used is single-crystal silicon, which is then cut into wafers, the most efficient type of solar panel on the market, and can be identified by its smooth black appearance. Allowing electrons to flow freely also makes them the most expensive type of household solar panel.
Monocrystalline silicon solar panels have the highest efficiency of 15-20%. Due to their high efficiency, they save space. The performance in low sunlight is better than the polycrystalline board.
But monocrystalline silicon solar panels are the most expensive silicon solar cells on the market. As the temperature increases, the performance level decreases. More waste will be generated during the production of single-crystal panels. After cutting out the four sides of the battery, the initially used silicon will eventually become waste (although it can still be used to produce polycrystalline panels).
Polycrystalline solar panel
Polycrystalline solar panels are formed by melting several pieces of silicon into a square mold to form solar cells. Since there are multiple crystals in each solar cell, the space for electron movement is small, and the efficiency is low compared to single-rystal cells. It usually has a blue appearance, is cheaper than single crystal silicon, and produces less waste during the production process.
However, the energy efficiency of polycrystalline panels is relatively low, at 13-16%. Because of their lower energy efficiency, they have lower space efficiency than single-crystal panels, so more physical panels are needed to produce the same amount of energy, and polycrystalline panels have a shorter life span because they High tolerance is slightly worse.
Thin-film solar panels
Thin-film solar panels are made by placing thin films of one or more PV materials on a substrate, which can be made into flexible panels. Thin-film solar panels are easier to produce because they require fewer materials and are the cheapest solar panels on the market.
Thin-film panels are the most inefficient on the market and require the most space. They are more resistant to high temperatures and are therefore suitable for hotter countries. It is the cheapest type of solar panel. Thin-film solar panels can be used flexibly, making them open to new applications, such as installing solar panels on RVs.
The efficiency of thin-film solar panels is four times that of single-crystal panels. Low energy efficiency also means that they have the lowest space efficiency. At the same time, service life is the shortest of the three.
Solar panel recycling
When the monocrystalline or polycrystalline solar panels reach the service life, these solar panels will be recycled. 95% glass, 85% silicon, and all metals are reused. However, due to the use of high-temperature heat treatment and chemical treatment, it pays a price. Film panels can also be recycled through different industrial processes.
Reduce electricity bills
Reduce electricity bills by integrating solar panels into the home. The energy generated by the solar panel is completely free, and the excess energy can always be stored for future use or exported back to the grid.
Use solar energy to make more money
With Smart Export Guarantee (SEG), make money by selling excess electricity back to the grid. SEG requires that all energy suppliers with 150,000 or more customers must provide export tariffs to homeowners, and the tariffs must be higher than zero. Small solar photovoltaic generators will be able to obtain a return on investment. However, only newly installed equipment can be registered for SEG, and equipment that has been registered under the "grid price" will be subject to these conditions.
Reduce carbon footprint
Converting to solar energy is a green renewable energy source that can greatly reduce your carbon footprint. Household solar panels can save about one ton of CO 2 annually, and only one installed solar panel can offset about 25 tons of CO 2 during its service life.
Solar panels can work effectively all year round. Although they work best in sunny months, they also generate a lot of electricity on cloudy days and in winter. Solar panels do not require heat to function effectively. They only need sunlight. This means that even on cloudy days, and of course in winter, solar panels can be effective!
Low maintenance requirements
The average service life of solar panels is 25 to 30 years, and these years require very little maintenance. High-quality inverters may need to be replaced every 10-15 years, but also, you can enjoy the benefits of solar energy under normal conditions.
It is best to have an installation program to regularly check the system to prevent cable connection problems or loose brackets.
You should also clean the solar panels regularly to ensure that no trees cast shadows on the panels. Solar panels installed on the roof are inherently self-cleaning because rain can help remove dust from the system.
Solar panels are ideal for remote areas, and it can be too expensive to extend the power cord to connect to the power grid. Solar photovoltaic systems are an effective and affordable solution for remote families in rural areas of the country. It is also possible to integrate solar cells into your solar panel system. Solar cells store the energy collected by solar cells in case they are needed from time to time or overnight.
The solar air heater is a device that uses solar energy to heat air. The outdoor panel can collect air from inside the house, circulate the air through a flat heat collecting panel installed outside the house, and then return the heated air to your house. The panel is directly connected to the outside of the house and is done by using solar collectors. The way of working is relatively simple. Cold air is drawn from the bottom of the room by a fan. The cold air then absorbs the heat stored in the collector. Then blow warm air into the room. Two 4-inch holes are required for the air inlet and outlet, and a small fan helps to make airflow through the circulation chamber in the panel. Must be connected to a standard 120-volt power supply.
The window-mounted unit does not require any modification or cut holes in the external wall. It fits in a standard window. The flexible gasket rests the edge of the device against the window frame to prevent air leakage. The fully-equipped equipment includes intake and exhaust ports and thermostatically controlled fans. Because the solar air heater is dark in color to help absorb heat, the device installed on the window blocks sunlight. The window-mounted unit does not require any modification or cut holes in the external wall. It fits in a standard window. The flexible gasket rests the edge of the device against the window frame to prevent air leakage. The fully-equipped equipment includes intake and exhaust ports and thermostatically controlled fans. Because the solar air heater is dark in color to help absorb heat, the device installed on the window blocks sunlight.
There is no icing problem in winter; small leakage does not seriously affect the operation and performance of the air heater; the pressure on the heater is very small and can be made of thin metal plates; there is no need to consider the anti-corrosion of the material; The air can be directly used for drying or heating the house without adding an intermediate heat exchanger.
For homeowners who want to use solar energy without a suitable roof, it is perhaps one of the most exciting aspects of residential solar energy. Ground-mounted solar installations and community solar gardens are two common methods for obtaining electrical energy from the sun without actually installing anything on the roof. Community solar involves connecting with members of a group or neighborhood to share a solar system, while ground-mounted arrays are a convenient way to own and install your system without having to bypass any roof obstacles.